Also Known As Phenotropil, Carphedon
  • Racetam
Good for
  • Memory
  • Energy
  • Physical Performance
Stacks Well With  

Dosage 10-200 mg
Half-life 3 -5 hours

Phenylpiracetam, also known as Phenotropil, is a drug from the Racetam family that is derived from Piracetam. It is a powerful nootropic drug, and it became very popular over the course of the last few years.

Phenylpiracetam is a powerful cognitive enhancer that can also boost the user’s performance in athletic activities.


Phenylpiracetam is also known to the general population as Carphedon and Phenotropil. It’s chemical name is (R2)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide. Today, it is one of the most powerful nootropics found on the market, which is why we will be taking a closer look at its history and effects.

Phenylpiracetam is derived from piracetam and its chemical properties place it in the racetam category. It is a potent nootropic agent with the ability to stimulate the central nervous system, and is among the first documented derivatives of piracetam.

It was discovered and synthesized by the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Biomedical Problems. Their goal was to discover a drug so powerful that it could help their cosmonauts withstand the severe and harsh environment of outer space.

Phenylpiracetam emerged as a very powerful drug with memory enhancing, anxiolytic, anti-amnestic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. The World Anti-Doping Agency had to ban it in professional sports because its effect on physical stamina and tolerance to cold weather were off the charts.

Today, it is available as a prescription drug in Russia, although people can buy it even without prescriptions in a great number of drugstores. In the USA, UK, Australia and Canada, this drug is also legal and available as a non-prescription drug.

There are a number of studies to backup the claims about phenylpiracetam’s effectiveness. Some of them have proven that it has beneficial effects on cognitive abilities, cognitive decline, anxiety and physical performance. Let’s see the complete list of phenylpiracetam’s benefits and effects.

Phenylpiracetam Benefits and Effects

Improves Cognitive Performance

In one of the first studies examining the effects of phenylpiracetam scientist found out that this compound has positive effects on cognition. The participants of this study were people who had suffered a stroke.

A 400 mg dose of phenylpiracetam was administered on a daily basis over the course of one year, which lead to remarkable results. This drug had improved both cognitive and functional parameters in the subjects. The results were assessed by the Lindmark, Scandinavian, Barthel, Merton and Sutton rating scales.

In another study, the subjects were people who had been diagnosed with vascular encephalopathy. They were administered two daily doses of 100 mg phenylpiracetam over the course of one month. The researchers found that this drug helped the subjects. It was beneficial for both their physiological and neurological symptoms – cognitive performance was significantly improved.

In one study conducted on healthy rats, scientists were able to connect the dots between this drug and memory retention. The healthy subjects were given a progressive dose of 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. The subjects experienced improved retention latency in a passive avoidance test by 195% and 185%. The better effect was induced with minimal doses of phenylpiracetam.

And lastly, a study was conducted on people with epilepsy. The scientists administered 100 mg of phenylpiracetam twice a day for one month. They assessed the cognitive performance of subjects before the medication and after the medication period with the MMSE rating scale. Post medication results were 12% better. The conclusion was that phenylpiracetam improves cognitive performance.

All of these studies have also proven that phenylpiracetam can also slow down cognitive decline. This is why this drug is held in high regard when it comes to picking the most efficient nootropic with the most neuroprotective potential.

Phenylpiracetam is a potent nootropic agent with the ability to stimulate the central nervous system, and is among the first documented derivatives of piracetam

Alleviates Anxiety and Symptoms of Depression

As of this moment, there are no relevant studies examining the effects of phenylpiracetam on anxiety in a healthy population. On the other hand, there is a study that examined these effects on patients who were anxious as a result of having a stroke. After being administered 200 mg of this drug once daily over a period of one month, the subjects reported improvements in anxiety and depression.

Scientists have also examined the effect of phenylpiracetam on people with symptoms of depression due to a cognitive decline. They were taking 200 mg of this drug each day and the symptoms were successfully alleviated. A CT scan survey, used in this study, confirms the positive effects of this drug on: higher brain functions, memory, attention and counting.

Another study examined the antidepressant effects of this drug on rats, were the subjects were exposed to a forced-swimming test. The symptoms of depression in these subjects were greatly reduced after the administration of 50 mg/kg phenylpiracetam. It is important to note that, R-phenotropil had significantly better results than S-phenotropils.

Increased Physical Activity

We have already mentioned that this drug is on the list of banned drugs in the sports world. This is because it has the power to boost physical performance. To examine this, scientists injected rats with 10-50 mg/kg phenylpiracetam doses. In this study, the researchers concluded that the drug significantly increases locomotor activity. The results were the same regardless of the injected dose.

How Phenylpiracetam Works

Before we start with how phenylpiracetam works, it is important to know that its molecule has both R- and S-enantiomers. All the studies that we have mentioned above have concluded that the r-isomer of phenylpiracetam has more potent nootropic effects on both human and mice subjects.

Phenylpiracetam has a very similar molecular structure to piracetam. What makes them different is the phenylpiracetam phenyl group attached to the pyrrolidone nucleus. The fourth position of the pyrrolidinone ring has chiral center, which is why phenylpiracetam has two isomers – S and R.

At the moment we don’t know the details of how it works. All we know came as feedback from phenylpiracetam studies. This study done on rats proves that phenylpiracetam binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, and the rats were given scopolamine so that they had induced memory impairment. Scopolamine increases cortical nACh and NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus and decreases both the density of striatal D1 and cortical benzodiazepine receptors.

During this study, phenylpiracetam exhibited anti-amnestic activity and restored performance in rats with induced memory impairment. All the receptor density changes induced by scopolamine were restored back to normal after phenylpiracetam was administered.

In a study where phenylpiracetam was used to treat sleep disorders, scientist noted that its extracellular dopamine levels were increased after it was administered to the patients. This is why phenylpiracetam’s biochemical function is described as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

After you take a phenylpiracetam capsule or powder, it will be rapidly absorbed in your gastrointestinal tract. Since the molecule is very small, it is able to rapidly pass the blood-brain barrier. After just one hour after the administration, the levels of phenylpiracetam in the blood will reach 100% of the ingested dose. The half-life of this nootropic is between 3-5 hours. After this time 40% of it will be excreted in the urine, while 60% will be excreted in the bile.

You should also know that people develop a tolerance for phenylpiracetam fairly quickly, but you will be able to reset this tolerance over time. If you would like to learn more about this tolerance mechanism, you should definitely read up on the tachyphylaxis effect. The bottom line is, make sure to cycle phenylpiracetam to mitigate the tachyphylaxis effect and be able to reap all the powerful benefits it has to offer.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage

The effective phenylpiracetam dose is between 200 mg and 600 mg per day. It’s recommended that you take this drug in 2 to 3 daily doses. Apart from this general advice, you can take a dose which is specific to your needs. For instance, a dose between 100 and 200 mg is more than enough if you want phenylpiracetam for general stimulation.

As you could see in the benefits and effects section, subjects of the studies were given minimal doses of 200 mg and maximal doses of 400 mg of phenylpiracetam. If you want to boost your cognitive performance these doses will be more than enough to get the job done.

When it comes to the recommended daily dose, it is usually 200 mg per day. This dose should be taken in two equal doses (100 mg). One dose should be in the morning, while the other should be in the afternoon. Avoid taking this nootropic a couple of hours before you plan to hit the bed, because the stimulative effects may cause you to stay awake for more than you’ve planned.

Phenylpiracetam is available in both powder and tablet form. Usually the doses are 100 mg.

Under its effect people who perform hard physical labor will be able to perform at optimal levels for a long time, while feeling less fatigued in the process.

Phenylpiracetam Stacking

Phenylpiracetam is a very powerful nootropic, which is why you will quite often find it in different nootropic stacks designed to take cognitive performance to another level. The most common stack based on phenylpiracetam incorporates choline. This is a good choice, because choline improves the effects of nootropics from the racetam family, while warding off the side-effects tied to them, such as headaches.

Another important fact to be familiar with, is phenylpiracetam tolerance. Generally, our bodies build up a tolerance to racetams quite fast, and phenylpiracetam is no exception. This is why, whether you are stacking it or taking it as a standalone supplement, you should cycle it to prevent the tolerance from building up.

Choline is an excellent option for stacking with phenylpiracetam, because it is a precursor to acetylcholine, which is essential for memory consolidation and formation. When you decide to make a stack for yourself, it is important to start with minimal doses. A good start would be 100 mg of phenylpiracetam and 250 mg of citicoline.

Since both of these compounds have cognitive enhancing properties, the effects of this stack are quite powerful. This is why it is recommended for students and people who are working hard and for long hours.


Phenylpiracetam works really fast, just half an hour after intaking it you will feel your mood lifting and your motivation levels spiking. Everything appears more enjoyable. On top of that, brain hackers report that they felt the urge to be talkative and social. Some of them even compare it to the effect of caffeine, just more powerful. WIth an increased ability to concentrate, you will go through your daily activities more efficiently.

Phenylpiracetam can place you “in the zone” and lift that fog in your brain so that you can focus on your work or study tasks. With phenylpiracetam you will become more productive, without risking any side-effects. That’s if you make sure to respect recommended daily dose, of course.

This nootropic is a powerful psychostimulant that also boosts physical stamina. Under its effect people who perform hard physical labor will be able to perform at optimal levels for a long time, while feeling less fatigued in the process.

Phenylpiracetam Side Effects

Over the course of decades there were no serious side effects related to phenylpiracetam supplementation. Since it is a compound from the racetam family, there is one side-effect tied to it that is common to all racetams – a headache. If you experience a headache after taking this drug it is advised to add choline to your supplementation.

PhenylpiracetamThe other common side-effects tied to the drugs from the racetam category are: irritability, overstimulation, jitteriness and nausea. The general advice is to reduce the daily dose if you experience any of the side effects mentioned above. If you don’t take higher doses than the recommended ones, you should not experience any side-effects.

In addition there is one study that brought the connection between lack of sleep and phenylpiracetam supplementation to light. In this study, scientists noted that subjects had sleep disturbances as a side-effect of phenylpiracetam supplementation. That being said, this occurrence was recorded only in this study and was never recorded again.

Where to Buy Phenylpiracetam

As we have previously mentioned, you can find both phenylpiracetam capsules and powder on the market. Unlike other nootropic powders, phenylpiracetam powder is not that terrible tasting. Be advised though, while it may not be as terrible as other powders, it is not entirely enjoyable either. This is why many people go for capsules.

In any case, when you are purchasing it you should do it with caution and care. You won’t be able to find it on Amazon, since it belongs to the gray area of supplements and is still not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration.

Because phenylpiracetam is a very powerful nootropic, we advise you to look for and only purchase from reputable vendors. Make sure that these vendors are well-known in the brain hacking community. The more social proof you can find, the better. In addition, make sure to pick a vendor with extensive testing policies. This way you will make sure that you get the purest product on the market.


Phenylpiracetam is one of the most powerful nootropics out there. As you can see, it can help you boost your cognitive and physical performance while alleviating the symptoms of anxiety and depression. If you pay attention to the dosage, and learn how to stack it with other smart drugs, we are confident that you will be able to achieve the results and goals you want.


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