Racetams are a family of drugs with the same structure called pyrrolidone nucleus. The first synthesized Racetam is called Piracetam and at first it was supposed to be used for its effects on sleep. While these effects weren’t noticeable, the researches realized that this drug has great potential for improving the cognitive processes. This is how the first nootropic was born.

After Piracetam, many other drugs were discovered and synthesized that now belong to this family. All of them offer cognitive benefits and this is why so many people are interested in trying out these smart drugs. Not only do all of these drugs have the power to improve brain functions, but they can also improve the user’s health.

Although most of the Racetams are considered to be Nootropics, each and every single one of them is different, offering different effects and benefits. Some are primarily stimulators, while some help users focus better, and some of them are tranquilizers.

List of most popular and beneficial Racetams

Although there are around 20 Racetams, not all of them have strong effects. Simply put, it would make sense to take some as users would have to take far greater doses to feel the effects. This is why only a portion of them have become popular and in-demand. The most notable Racetams are:

· Piracetam
· Aniracetam
· Pramiracetam
· Oxiracetam
· Fasoracetam
· Coluracetam
· Phenylpiracetam

These are the Racetams that we will talk about today and compare, so that you can understand their differences and choose the best one for your needs.


Piracetam is the first synthesized nootropic and it is one of the strongest and most popular options on the market. It helps people that have a cognitive deficiency and is mostly used by older people or by those that have suffered cognitive decline.

Benefits of Piracetam

Piracetam offers no benefits to healthy people, but only to older individuals and those that have cognitive issues. The unique properties of this supplement offer benefits for treating BHS with small children.

Piracetam can help older people postpone cognitive decline, improve memory recall and protect users from cerebral trauma and ischemia.

How Piracetam Works

Piracetam affects acetylcholine, kainate, glutamate and other neurotransmitter systems. With this mechanism it increases blood flow and oxygen in the brain, modifying cognitive, vascular and neuronal functions.

Cell membrane stability is also improved and ATP metabolism is increased. All of these mechanisms lead to the benefits Piracetam has. The overall effect improves neural transmission.

Piracetam Dosage

Piracetam can be found in powder form, but it’s more common to find capsules that are usually around 800 mg. For kids, the dosage can range from 50 to 100 mgs per kg of bodyweight daily, and the dose for adults can range from 1000 mg to 5000 mg daily.

Piracetam Stacks

Piracetam can be stacked with Alpha GPC (to make up for choline deficiency), Aniracetam, as well as with Oxiracetam and Aniracetam at the same time, Pramiracetam, and Huperzine A.

Piracetam Side Effects

Piracetam is very safe and offers few side effects. This is why it’s very popular amongst nootropics. Still,  in rare cases people have encountered some light side effects. These include being nervous, gaining weight and being hyperactive.


This is the second ever synthesized nootropic. Aniracetam is very similar to Piracetam, but it has been modified to enhance certain effects. Aniracetam is much more potent than Piracetam and has some additional benefits.

This nootropic is used for its effects on improving memory, concentration, putting users in a better mood, allowing people to be social, and giving them emotional stability.

Aniracetam Benefits

There are many nootropics similar to Aniracetam, but its effects are simply far stronger. Additionally, it’s very safe and costs less than similar nootropics. Its primary effect is improving memory and there are many studies that prove this. It helps with both long-term and short-term memory.

Aniracetam enhances cognitive functions and makes the brain perform better, allowing users to think more clearly, focus, and concentrate for longer periods. It also has the power to help people that have cognitive impairment issues.

Aniracetam enhances the attention span of users and can be helpful to people that have ADHD or other attention disorders. Users are more aware of their surroundings when using this supplement.

How Aniracetam Works

Aniracetam affects brain metabolism and regulates it to achieve a normal balance. It increases the level of blood flow to the brain and helps ischemic patients. This nootropic also regulates receptors which effect glutamate neurotransmission.

Aniracetam has anxiolytic and antidepressant mechanisms which can help users reduce stress.

Aniracetam Dosage

Compared to Piracetam, Aniracetam needs to be taken in smaller doses. It is absorbed very quickly and higher doses might cause a lot of strain. The starting dose should be around 700 mg and for experienced users it can go up to 4000 mg per day.

For lower doses, taking it twice per day in equal time intervals is the right way to start – after the doses are increased it should be split into three doses per day.

Aniracetam Stacks

This nootropic can be stacked with various vitamins, supplements and other Racetams. It’s good to stack it with fish oil, choline, Piracetam, and Oxiracetam.

Aniracetam Side Effects

Like most nootropics, the most common side effects of Aniracetam are headaches and an inability to fall asleep.


Pramiracetam is considered to be one of the most potent nootropics. Its brain boosting capabilities are considered to be around 30 times stronger than those of Piracetam. On top of that, it can be used by healthy people as well.

It helps improve memory overall and can be used by patients that suffer from dementia, dyslexia, ADHD and similar neurological conditions.

Pramiracetam Benefits

The biggest benefit of Pramiracetam is memory improvement. This is one of the most effective nootropics when it comes to improving memory formation and memory retrieval. It helps users remember events, people, and places, while retaining memories.

It improves mental health and brain function, giving users more mental energy, thought clarity and better alertness. Pramiracetam also offers neuroprotective benefits and this is why some countries in Europe prescribe it for Dementia and Alzheimer’s.

How Pramiracetam Works

Similarly to most other nootropics, Pramiracetam causes neurotransmitter release in the brain. However, it has different mechanisms to achieve this. While other nootropics affect certain neuro receptors, Pramiracetam affects all of them.

It also affects the hippocampus, which has one of the most important roles in creating memories. The effects on the hippocampus also increase brain blood flow, oxygen within the brain and the level of energy the brain has.

Pramiracetam Dosage

The daily dose of Pramiracetam can range from 400 mg to 1200 mg. It should be taken in two to three doses separated at equal time intervals. There are powder and capsule options, with capsules usually being around 200 mg.

Pramiracetam Stacks

It can be stacked with choline sources such as Alpha GPC and Citicoline, Aniracetam, and a stack of smart drugs Modafinil, Armodafinil and Adrafinil.

Pramiracetam Side Effects

This is a very tolerable supplement and very few people feel any side effects. Many have tried higher doses than the suggested ones and had no consequences. Still, it could cause headaches if you don’t stack it with a choline source.

On the other hand, in some rare cases, people felt nervous after using this supplement. This is probably due to the fact that they wanted to experiment with this drug by taking higher doses.


This nootropic is very similar to Piracetam when it comes to its physical structure, the only difference is that it has a hydroxyl group that can’t be found in Piracetam. Because of this, Oxiracetam has much stronger effects than Piracetam and is taken in smaller doses.

It has similar mechanics to Aniracetam and Piracetam, as it increases the use of acetylcholine and modulates AMPA receptors. However, it also affects the D-aspartic acid. This added effect could potentially increase the level of metabolic activity within neuronal cells.

Oxiracetam Benefits

This is one of the most popular nootropics amongst students, people that work hard, ambitions learners, artists, and people who have mental disorders. It can help manage disorders such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia.

It enhances cognitive functions and protects the brain from further cognitive decline. Users feel more creative and have better ideas when using Oxiracetam, and they are motivated to work hard while concentrating on the task at hand.

How Oxiracetam Works

Oxiracetam modulates AMPA receptors, but it binds to different places compared to Aniracetam and Piracetam. It’s either this or D-aspartic acid effects might be responsible for making Oxiracetam stronger than Piracetam, but there is no proof of this.

Oxiracetam Dosage

Given the fact that it’s stronger than Piracetam, the regular dosage range is smaller and goes from 500mg to 1g per day. The effects can be felt for up to 7 hours after taking it, so make sure that you don’t get a new dose until 7 hours have passed.

Oxiracetam Stacks

Giving the fact that they bind in different sites Oxiracetam, Aniracetam and Piracetam can be taken together in any combination without jeopardizing the effects of each other. As with all other nootropics, make sure to make up for the lack of choline with some diet changes or a choline supplement.

Oxiracetam Side Effects

Like most Racetams Oxiracetam has been known to cause headaches, loss of appetite, anxiety and feelings of restlessness.


Compared to other nootropics and Racetams, Fasoracetam is quite different both when it comes to its physical structure and its effects. It affects various brain receptors and those in the cerebral cortex as well. It acts on GABA and is much stronger than its relative Piracetam.

People use this drug because it gives them better focus, helps people learn faster, help them retain knowledge and enhance their memory overall. However, even though this is one of the strongest nootropics, it also carries the most potential side effects.

Fasoracetam Benefits

Fasoracetam doesn’t help people that have conditions which deteriorate memory or brain power. Instead, it has been proven to be helpful with schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, ADD, ADHD… It can help users fight depression, help with memory deficits caused by baclofen and phenibut, and improves brain oxygen levels and blood flow to the brain.

How Fasoracetam Works

It stimulates metabotropic glutamate receptors and modulates adenylate cyclase. It enhances choline uptake and stimulates cholinergic activity. One of the unique mechanisms of Fasoracetam is that it upregulates GABAb receptors.

Fasoracetam Dosage

Fasoracetam should be taken very strictly within the range of suggested dosages, as it’s very potent and has strong effects on the brain. Beginners should start with 20 mg, while even experienced people should never go over 40 mg. Depending on Creatine levels the bioavailability of thus supplement varies. It should be taken on an empty stomach.

Fasoracetam Stacks

In most cases Fasoracetam is paired with L-Theanine, Alpha GPC, and Fish Oil because of their neutral effects. This is a very potent nootropic and it’s hard to stack it safely. The only other supplement it can be stacked with is Coluracetam.

 Fasoracetam Side Effects

Like with most nootropics, Fasoracetam can cause headaches. Additionally, some people have experienced fatigue when using it. Taking large doses of Fasoracetam and going over 1000 mg per day can be fatal and cause heart failure.


Coluracetam was synthesized in 1993 and it’s very similar to Piracetam. However it has an added dimethyl tetrahydrofuran quinolinyl grouping, which makes this supplement a very strong choline uptake enhancer, i.e. it causes significant cognitive enhancement. It can also help with treating major depressive disorder.

Coluracetam metabolizes in the body rapidly with a short lifespan. Still, this doesn’t prevent its memory-enhancing benefits, as they can last for up to 24 hours. It can help by enhancing memory and students use it because it treats anxiety and depression, while also letting them learn better and memorize knowledge.

Coluracetam Benefits

This nootropic from Racetam family offers unique benefits with eyesight and gives more vividness and better color recognition. There is still no proof for how this works, but it’s believed that Coluracetam affects the areas of the brain in charge of visual processes.

Studies have shown memory improvement with Coluracetam and many people who tried it and reviewed it have confirmed these benefits. Users that have anxiety or depression have also felt great relief from using this supplement.

How Coluracetam Works

Racetam ComparisonIt greatly increases choline uptake as it was synthesized to be a HACU enhancer. This means that the uptake of damaged neurons is also increased. The HACU process responsible for choline absorption and Coluracetam interact, causing an increased uptake when acetylcholine synthesis is happening.

Coluracetam also improves the potentiation of AMPA and this process causes better alertness and improved cognitive function.

Coluracetam Dosage

The recommended dosage for this nootropic goes from 30 mg per day for beginners up to 90 mg per day for experienced users.

Coluracetam Stacks

Coluracetam is probably one of the nootropics that you should definitely stack with choline. If you go with CDC choline, your dose should range from 200 mg to 700 mg, and if you use Alpha GPC, it should be around 300 mg to 600 mg per day.

Coluracetam Side Effects

There haven’t been any major side effects with this nootropic. The only thing users complained about are headaches and they can be reduced with regular choline intake.


Phenylpiracetam or Phenotropil is a nootropic derived from Piracetam. The only physical difference is that it has a phenyl group in its structure. Because of this group it seems to need fewer doses to give the same effects as Piracetam.

It’s basically an alternative to Piracetam and people who want to take smaller doses or simply find a similar supplement with a better price switch to this alternative.

Phenylpiracetam Benefits

Similarly to its relative it helps you improve memory, get focused, enhances memory recall, boosts concentration, improves brain energy, and reduces anxiety and fear. It can be used for treating ADHD symptoms and users are generally in a better mood when using it.

How Phenylpiracetam Works

With the Phenyl group this supplement can go through the brain-blood barrier easily, and this is why users need smaller doses than with Piracetam to get similar effects. Additionally, this supplement stays active for a longer period of time due to the Phenyl group.

The memory and learning effects are also present like with other similar nootropics and they are not different in any way.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage

You can even get the results with this nootropic by starting with 100 mg every day and up to 200 mg the most. This nootropic can be only taken in occasions when you really need these effects. It is dangerous to take it every day and over longer periods of time.

Phenylpiracetam Stacks

It can be stacked with other Racetams, Alpha GPC or Sulbutiamine.

Phenylpiracetam Side Effects

Similarly to all Racetams, headache, nausea and irritability are potential side effects. Additionally, given the strong stimulating effect, it might make it difficult to fall asleep.

Where to Buy Racetams?

All countries have different laws on nootropics and Racetams. Additionally, from one supplement to another the laws might be different. This is why you should make sure to check the regulations in your country. Although Racetams can be found in stores on rare occasions, the best way to get your product is to order it online from reliable vendors.


Racetams are some of the first nootropics and they are very effective for improving various cognitive abilities, memory and learning. Choose your supplement depending on what you need. When making your decision be sure to consider stacks and their effects, as they might give you what you need.


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